A good man-to-man defense looks like a zone away from the ball (help-side defense)... see Basic Defense. The match-up zone resembles what we years ago called a "switching man-to-man", where defenders switch freely with one another, so that your defensive big men stay down low and your quick guards are on the perimeter.
This discussion also reminds us that "a good zone looks like a man-to-man, and a good man-to-man looks like a zone."
An advantage of the match-up defense is that it may confuse the opponent in trying to figure out what defense you are actually playing. Also, it may dictate or affect the offense's basic set and get them out of their usual comfortable set. With the match-up, you can show a 2-1-2 formation, which may force the offense to go with a 1-3-1 or a 3-out, 2-in set.
If you show a 1-3-1 or a 1-2-2 match-up zone, the offense may change to a 2-1-2, or 2-3 set. So you may be able to put them into something they are less comfortable with. As in any aggressive man-to-man defense, pressure the ball at all times, front the low post, deny the passing lanes, and give help on inside penetration.
Now let's look at some defensive sets and how to match-up. You can create your own match-up rules so long as your players all understand and know the coverage patterns. In the diagrams below X = defense, O = offense.
Refer to Diagram A.
Here your 2-1-2 match-up faces a 1-3-1 offense. You see in the diagram how your defensive players match up with the offense. X1 takes the point (O1), and X2 gets the right wing player (O2), while X3 comes out to pick up the left wing (O3)
Refer to Diagram B.
The 2-1-2 match-up zone faces a 3-out, 2-in offensive set. The coverage pattern is identical to that in Diagram A, except that X5 will drop down to the low block and pick up O5.
By using either the 1-3-1 or 1-2-2 set, you may be able to force the offense out of their usual 1-3-1, or 3-out, 2-in offense and into a 2-1-2 set.
Refer to Diagram C. (1-3-1 match-up zone vs 2-1-2 offense) X1 picks up the guard to his right and X2 gets the other guard. X3 drops down to get the player in his/her corner and X4 gets the opposite corner. X5 has the middle.
Refer to Diagram D. (1-2-2 match-up zone vs 2-1-2 offense) Again X1 and X2 pick up the two guards (O1 and O2) and X3 gets the wing-corner (O3) on his side. X4 picks up the opposite corner (O4) and X5 moves up to defend the high post (O5).
Refer to Diagram E.
Here's how to match up against the 1-4 stack offense. X2 should play the gap between O2 and O4, and X3 plays the gap between O3 and O5. Both of these defenders can try to deny the pass to the wing and help when the ball gets to the post player at the elbow. If X2 (or X3) gets beaten by the back-cut, then X4 (or X5) must recognize this and pick up the cutter, while X2 (or X3) slides over to pick up the post player (O4 or O5) that was vacated by the switch.
So far, so good...
Look at Diagrams G and H below. How are you going to defend these cuts? You must have a solution for defending these offensive cuts. In Diagram G, when the cutter (O2) moves away from the ball (to the weak-side), X2 can stay with and bump the cutter, and deny the pass, and then switch with X4 once O2 moves to the corner. Now X2 has O4 and X4 has O2.
In Diagram H, this is a more threatening situation with the cutter moving ball-side. Here it might be easiest just to have X2 stay with O2 man-to-man all the way to the ball-side corner. Now, X1 and X3 may need to slide one position leftward as the offense rotates back around to the other side. In other words, after the ball-side cut, X2 is now on the right wing (X3's former position), X3 is on top on the right (X1's former position) and X1 now has the left top spot (X2's former position).
However you do it, you must have a solution for these cuts, and must drill them thoroughly in practice so everyone under- stands what to do.
The other option, which is even more simple, is to have just one rule... once the initial match-ups are done (on that particular offensive possession by the opponent) and you have affected the offense's basic set, everyone plays man-to-man, using the concepts of on-ball, deny and help-side defense (see Man-to-Man Pressure Defense).Now, go to this page for a complete 1-3-1 match-up zone, with all the details regarding how to rotate and defend cutters, handle screens, hi-lo, flash cuts, etc. This will help you decide how you want to handle these various situations.